An electric car has components that perform the same task as a car with an internal combustion engine. Unlike the traditional unit, where the “explosion” of the fuel-air mixture provides motion, the electric motor is an interaction of magnets. Once the current flows, the electromagnet (rotor) rotates in the middle of the permanent magnets (stator).
This rotation is transmitted directly or via a gearbox to the wheels. An electric motor is a device that converts electricity into a mechanical one. Currently, most manufacturers use three-phase motors. Performance characteristics of these motors are given in kilowatt hours (kW), and for better perception of the kilowatt is simply converted into horsepower, but it is more marketing.
Lithium-ion batteries as a power source
Electricity for the magnets comes from the battery, the battery, so to speak, from the tank of an electric car. In the field of energy storage, more and more manufacturers are using lithium-ion technology, which provides a good compromise between performance and cost. Such a battery consists of many individual cells in which electricity is generated by the electrochemical process.
The so-called inverter converts the direct current from the battery into alternating current, which then drives the electric motor. During braking, the controller performs the task of processing the energy generated by the regeneration as a rectifier for the battery.
Weaknesses in electric vehicles
Many have heard that the biggest problem with any electric car is the battery. The fact is that the electrochemical reaction in the battery cells produces a lot of heat. As a result, car manufacturers put a lot of effort into cooling the batteries. Otherwise, there is a high probability of ignition, and there have been such cases.
In addition, in the event of a serious accident, there may also be fire, so manufacturers here and try to apply the latest technology to avoid fire in the battery when it is destroyed. Usually, as in the case of internal combustion engines, cooling is carried out through water cycles.
Different drive concepts
As in the case of a traditional car, the electric car drive can be either full or single-axle, and two electric motors, one for each axle, are usually used for all-wheel drive. The PTO shaft is not used because the compact motors are electrically controlled.
Some electric vehicles are equipped with three electric motors, one per front axle and two smaller motors per rear axle, left and right. In this way, you can control the rear wheels individually, which can make the car more dynamic by skillfully distributing the torque.
How to refuel with electricity
The fastest way to recharge your electric car is to charge the battery with special electric charging. With a power of 150 kW, the largest and most powerful batteries can now be charged up to 80 percent in 30 minutes.
The main advantages of electric cars over cars with internal combustion engines
It’s all about eco-friendliness. At least motorists of our country put this indicator at the end of the list of advantages, agree. Well, then, the cost of one kilometer of travel. There is even nothing to argue about.
Another very important thing is the dynamics, especially in the range of 0-60 km/h, which is exactly what is needed in urban traffic. The fact is that the maximum torque in an electric car is available immediately, but not because in traditional engines, where the engine speed must still rise to a certain point.
Vibrations are many times less, but to tell the truth, sometimes there is not enough. Even an electric motor is cheaper to maintain and breaks much less often. Some electric cars in driver sensations are more pleasant than classmates with traditional motors. This is due to the fact that the center of gravity of an electric car is usually very low due to the long and flat battery under the bottom.